Chair of the Department of Developmental Psychology and Educational Psychology



Prof. Dr. Markus Paulus


Leopoldstr. 13

80802 München

Raum: 3424


Email: markus.paulus(at)

Phone: 089 / 2180 - 5150

Fax: 089 / 2180 - 5355

Office hours


Please make an appointment in the secretariat or by e-mail (

Curriculum Vitae

2000 - 2007



2006 - 2007


2007 - 2011



2011 - 2013

2012 - 2013

Summer 2013



since 09/2013




 Studies at the University of Eichstätt

 Studies abroad at the University of Oulu (Finland)

 Diploma in Psychology (minors: Italian literature, History, Economics, 


 Personal Assistant of the Vice-President of the University of Eichstätt

 M.A. in Philosophy/Sociology

 Research Associate at the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and

 Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen (The Netherlands)

 Research Visit at the Early Social Development Lab (Prof. Chris Moore),

 Halifax (Canada)

 Ph.D. in Psychology (with distinction). Dissertation: Development of action

 perception: Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying children's processing

 of others' actions (Promotor: Harold Bekkering)

 Lecturer at the Chair for Developmental and Educational Psychology,

 LMU München

 Junior Researcher in Residence at the Center for Advanced Studies

 (CAS), LMU München

 Substitute Chair for Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Erfurt

 George Butterworth Young Scientist Award, European Association for

 Developmental Psychology (EADP)

 Appointments to assistant professorships in Developmental Psychology at

 the University of East Anglia (Norwich, UK), the University of Winchester

 (Winchester, UK), as well as a tenure/-track professorship at the LMU


Professor for Developmental and Educational Psychology, LMU München

Distinguished Early Career Award, International Conference on Infant Studies (ICIS)

Understanding Human Cognition Scholar Award, James S. McDonnell Foundation

Chair for Developmental and Educational Psychology, LMU München


In Press

Christner, N., Pletti, C., & Paulus, M. (in press). How does the moral self-concept relate to

prosocial behaviour? Investigating the role of emotions and consistency-preference. Cognition and Emotion.


Christner, N., Wörle, M., & Paulus, M. (in press). Normative views and resource distribution

behavior in childhood: Dissociated at the group level, but associated at the individual level. International Journal of Behavioral Development.


Essler, S. & Paulus, M. (in press). Caregivers’ Everyday Moral Reasoning Predicts Young

Children’s Aggressive, Prosocial, and Moral Development: Evidence from Ambulatory Assessment. Infancy.


Misch, A., Paulus, M., & Dunham, Y. (in press). Anticipation of future collaboration overrides

minimal ingroup bias in children and adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology General.



Kammermeier, M., & Paulus, M. (2022). Maternal emotional availability relates to two-year-

olds’ behavior in a challenging cooperative interaction. Infant Behavior and Development, 67, 101696.


Menzel, S., & Paulus, M. (2022). The ontogeny of efficient second-order action planning: The

developing interplay of controlled and habitual processes in goal-directed actions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 216,


Paulus, M. (2022). Should infant psychology rely on the violation-of-expectation method? Not

anymore. Infant and Child Development, 31 (1),


Pletti, C., Decety, J., & Paulus, M. (2022). Neural processing of moral content reflects moral

identity in 10‐year‐old children. Developmental Science. DOI:10.1111/desc.13232



Christner, N., Essler, S., Hazzam, A., & Paulus, M. (2021). Children’s psychological well-being

and problem behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic: An online study during the lockdown period in Germany. PLOS ONE, 16(6): e0253473.


Essler, S., & Paulus, M. (2021). Robin Hood or Matthew? Children’s reasoning about

redistributive justice in the context of economic inequalities. Child Development, 92(4), 1254-1273.


Essler, S., & Paulus, M. (2021). When do caregivers begin to view their child as a moral agent?

Comparing moral and non-moral reactions to young children’s moral transgressions. Journal of Moral Education, 50(3), 330-342.


Essler, S., Christner, N., & Paulus, M. (2021). Longitudinal relations between parental strain,

parent-child relationship quality and child well-being during the unfolding COVID-19 pandemic. Child Psychiatry & Human Development.


Ganglmayer, K., Haupt, M., Finke, K. & Paulus, M. (2021). Adults, but not preschoolers or

toddlers integrate situational constraints in their action anticipations: A developmental study on the flexibility of anticipatory gaze. Cognitive Processing, 22(3), 515–528.


Gönül, G., & Paulus, M. (2021). Children's reasoning about the efficiency of others' actions:

The development of rational action prediction. Journal of experimental child psychology, 204, 105035.


Gönul, G., Tsalas, N., & Paulus, M. (2021). The effect of time pressure on metacognitive

control: developmental changes in self-regulation and efficiency during learning. Metacognition and Learning, 16 (3), DOI: 10.1007/s11409-021-09262-y


Kammermeier, M., & Paulus, M. (2021). Maternal sensitivity and non-intrusiveness at 12

months predict attention to emotional facial expressions at 24 months: A cross-lagged panel approach. Social Development, 1-20.


Kim, S., Senju, A., Sodian, B., Paulus, M., Itakura, S., Okuno, A., Ueno, M., & Proust, J. (2021).

Memory Monitoring and Control in Japanese and German Preschoolers. Memory & cognition, 10.3758/s13421-021-01263-1.


Kloo, D., Sodian, B., Kristen-Antonow, S., Kim, S. & Paulus, M. (2021). Knowing minds: Linking

early perspective taking and later metacognitive insight. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 39(1), 39-53, DOI: 10.1111/bjdp.12359


Lenz, S. & Paulus, M. (2021). Friendship is more than strategic reciprocity: Preschoolers'

selective sharing with friends cannot be reduced to strategic concerns. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 206 (2), DOI:10.1016/j.jecp.2021.105101


Lenz, S., Essler, S., Wörle, M., & Paulus, M. (2021). “Who will share with me?”: Preschoolers rely

on their friends more than on their nonfriends to share with them. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 203, 105037.


Melzel, S., & Paulus, M. (2021). The development of the prediction of complex actions in early

childhood. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 18 (2), 161-183,


Misch, A., Kristen-Antonow, S., & Paulus, M. (2021). A question of morals? The role of moral

identity in support of the youth climate movement Fridays4Future. PLoS ONE.


Misch, A., Paulus, M., & Dunham, Y. (2021). Anticipation of future cooperation eliminates

minimal ingroup bias in children and adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General, 150(10), 2036–2056.


Nijssen, S., Pletti, C., Paulus, M., Müller, B. (2021) Does agency matter? Neural processing of

robotic movements in 4- and 8-year olds. Neuropsychologia 157, 107853. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2021.107853


Nijssen, S.R.R, Müller, B.C.N., Bosse, T., & Paulus, M. (2021). You, robot? The role of

anthropomorphic emotion attributions in children’s sharing with a robot. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 30,


Opitz, T., Schuwerk, T., Paulus, M., Kloo, D., Osterhaus, C., Lesch, K.-P. & Sodian, B. (2021). No

links between genetic variation and developing theory of mind: A preregistered replication attempt of candidate gene studies. Developmental Science, 24 (9), DOI:10.1111/desc.13100


Pfundmair, M., Paulus, M., & Wagner, E. (2021). Activism and radicalism in adolescence: an

empirical test on age-related differences. Psychology, Crime and Law, 27 (8), 815-830,


Sticker, R. M., Christner, N., Pletti, C., & Paulus, M. (2021). The moral self-concept in preschool

children: Its dimensions and relation to prosocial behaviors. Cognitive Development, 58.



Christner, N., Pletti, C., & Paulus, M. (2020). Emotion understanding and the moral self-concept

as motivators of prosocial behavior in middle childhood. Cognitive Development, 55.


Christner, N., Sticker, R. M., Söldner, L., Mammen, M., & Paulus, M. (2020). Prevention for

oneself or others? Psychological and social factors that explain social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Health Psychology,


Essler, S., Lepach, A. C., Petermann, F., & Paulus, M. (2020). Equality, equity, or inequality

duplication? How preschoolers distribute necessary and luxury resources between rich and poor others. Social Development, 29(1), 110-125.


Essler, S., Wörle, M., Moore, C., & Paulus, M. (2020). Preschoolers’ sharing expectations

towards friends relate to their kindergarten peer status. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 38(1), 1-14.


Filevich, E., Garcia Folim, C., Fehrmann, C., Forster, C., Paulus, M., Shing, Y.L., & Kühn, S. (2020).

I know that I know nothing: Cortical thickness and functional connectivity underyling meta-ignorance ability in pre-schoolers. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 41, 100738.


Ganglmayer, K., Schuwerk, T., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2020). Do children and adults with

autism spectrum condition anticipate others’ actions as goal-directed? A predictive coding perspective. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 50, 2077-2089.


Kammermeier, M., Duran Perez, L., König, L. & Paulus, M. (2020). Attachment security and

attention to facial emotional expressions in preschoolers: An eye‐tracking study. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. doi:10.1111/bjdp.12313


Kim, S., Paulus, M., Sodian, B., & Proust, J. (2020). Children’s prior experiences of their

successes and failures modulate belief alignment. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17, 664-678.


Kim, S., Sodian, B., Paulus, M., Senju, A., Okuno, A., Ueno, M., Itakura, S., & Proust, J. (2020).

Metacognition and mindreading in young children: A cross-cultural study. Consciousness and Cognition, 85, 103017.


Melzel, S., Paulus, M. (2020). The development of the prediction of complex actions in early

childhood. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 18(2), 161-183, DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2020.1773786


Paulus, M. (2020). Die Einheit der Psychologie ist die Basis der Entwicklungspsychologie.

Psychologische Rundschau, 71, 44-46. (Kommentar zu Daum et al., Positionspapier der Fachgruppe Entwicklungspsychologie: Ein Versuch einer Standortbestimmung)


Paulus, M. (2020). How do young children become moral agents? A developmental

perspective. In J. Decety (Ed.), The social brain: A developmental perspective. MIT Press.


Paulus, M. (2020). Is young children’s helping affected by helpees’ need? Preschoolers, but not

infants selectively help needy others. Psychological Research, 84, 1440-1450.


Paulus, M. (2020). Sind kleine Kinder Wissenschaftler und Philosophen? Eine kritische

Erörterung aus entwicklungspsychologischer Perspektive. In C. Heinrich, D. Berner-Zumpf, & M. Teichert (Hrsg.), „Alle Tassen fliegen hoch!“: Eine Kritik der Kinderphilosophie (S. 76-91). Weinheim: Beltz.


Paulus, M. (2020). The developmental emergence of morality: A review of current theoretical

perspectives. Progress of Brain Research, 254, 205-223.


Paulus, M., & Essler, S. (2020). Why do preschoolers perpetuate inequalities? Theoretical

perspectives on inequity preferences in the face of emerging concerns for equality. Developmental Review, 58, 100933.


Paulus, M., Christner, N., & Wörle, M. (2020). The normative status of friendship: Do young

children enforce sharing with friends and appreciate reasonable partiality? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 194.


Paulus, M., Erbe, J., Wolfsperger, J., Essler, S., & Wörle, M. (2020). Originalarbeit: Prosoziales

Verhalten bei Vorschulkindern mit Sprachentwicklungsstörungen. Eine explorative Studie. Frühförderung interdisziplinär, 39(3), 120-136.


Paulus, M., Wörle, M., & Christner, N. (2020). The emergence of human altruism: Preschool children develop a norm for empathy-based comforting. Journal of Cognition and Development, 21, 104-124.


Pletti, C., Paulus, M. (2020) Neural processing of equitable and inequitable distributions in

5-year-old children. Social Neuroscience 15 (5), 584-599. doi: 10.1080/17470919.2020.1816578


Schuwerk, T., Bätz, J., Träuble, B., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2020). Do ostensive cues affect

object processing in children with and without autism? A test of natural pedagogy theory. Psychological Research, 84, 2248-2261.


Wörle, M., Essler, S., & Paulus, M. (2020). Paying it back and forward: The impact of

experiencing and observing others’ sharing and stinginess on preschoolers’ own sharing behavior and expectations. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 198, 104886.



Burgstaller, J., Paulus, M., & Pfundmair, M. (2019). Oxytocin promotes action prediction.

Hormones and Behavior, 107, 46-48.


Dahl, A., & Paulus, M. (2019). From interest to obligation: The gradual development of human

altruism. Child Development Perspectives, 13, 10-14.


Ganglmayer, K., Attig, M., Daum, M.M., & Paulus, M. (2019). Infants’ perception of goal-

directed actions: A multi-lab replication reveals that infants anticipate paths and not goals. Infant Behavior and Development, 57, 101340.


Nijssen, S.R.R., Müller, B.C.N., van Baaren, R.B., & Paulus, M. (2019). Saving the robot or the

human? Robots who feel deserve moral care. Social Cognition, 37, 41-S2.


Paulus, M. (2019). Psychosexuelle und soziale Entwicklung. In D. Urhahne, M. Dresel, & F.

Fischer (Eds.), Psychologie für den Lehrberuf (S. 253-272). Heidelberg: Springer.


Paulus, M. (2019). Schlüsselexperimente der Entwicklungspsychologie. München: Ernst

Reinhardt Verlag.


Paulus, M., & Wörle, M. (2019). Young children protest against the incorrect use of novel

words: Towards a normative pragmatic account on language acquisition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 180, 113-122.


Paulus, M., Wörle, M., & Christner, N. (2019). The emergence of human altruism: Preschool

children develop a norm for empathy-based comforting. Journal of Cognition and Development.


Pletti C., Decety, J., Paulus, M. (2019). Moral identity relates to the neural processing of third-

party moral behavior. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 14 (4), 435-445. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsz016.


Wörle, M., & Paulus, M. (2019). Normative foundations of reciprocity in preschoolers. Journal

of Experimental Child Psychology



Paulus, M. (2018). Preschool children's and adults' expectations about interpersonal space.

Frontiers in Psychology, 9, No. 2479.

Kammermeier, M., & Paulus, M. (2018). Do action-based tasks evidence false-belief

understanding in young children? Cognitive Development, 46, 31-39.


Kammermeier, M., & Paulus, M. (2018). Stichwort: Kooperatives Handeln. Frühförderung

interdisziplinär, 37(3), 151-155.


Kim, S., Paulus, M., Sodian, B., Itakura, S., Ueno, M., Senju, A., & Proust, J. (2018). Selective

learning and teaching among Japanese and German children. Developmental Psychology, 54, 536-542.


Müller B.C.N., Marx, A.K.G., Paulus, M., & Meinhardt, J. (2018). Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry

relates to implicit achievement motivation: A pilot study. Mind, Brain, and Education, 12, 82-89.


Nunner-Winkler, G., & Paulus, M. (2018). Prosoziale und moralische Entwicklung. In W.

Schneider & U. Lindenberger (Eds.), Entwicklungspsychologie (S. 537-557). Weinheim: Beltz.


Paulus, M. (2018). The multidimensional nature of early prosocial behavior: a motivational

perspective. Current Opinion in Psychology, 20, 111-116.


Paulus, M., & Kammermeier, M. (2018). How to deal with a failed replication of the Duplo task?

A response to Rubio-Fernández (2019). Cognitive Development, 48, 217-218.


Paulus, M., & Schmidt, M.F.H. (2018). The early development of the normative mind. Journal of

Experimental Child Psychology, 165, 1-6. (Editorial for special issue)


Paulus, M., Licata, M., Gniewosz, B., & Sodian, B. (2018). The impact of mother-child

interaction quality and cognitive abilities on children’s self-concept and self-esteem. Cognitive Development, 48, 42-51.


Paulus, M., Nöth, A., & Wörle, M. (2018). Preschoolers' resource allocations align with their

normative judgments. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 175, 117-126.


Sabbagh, M.A., & Paulus, M. (2018). Replication studies of implicit false belief with infants and

toddlers. Cognitive Development, 46, 1-3. (Editorial for special issue)


Schuwerk, T., & Paulus, M. (2018). Action Prediction in Autism. In F. R. Volkmar (Ed.),

Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders. New York, NY: Springer New York.


Tsalas, N.R.H., Müller, B.C.N., Meinhardt, J., Proust, J., Paulus, M., & Sodian, B. (2018). An ERP

study on metacognitive monitoring processes in children. Brain Research, 1652, 170-177.


Wörle, M., & Paulus, M. (2018). Normative expectations about fairness: The development of a

charity norm in preschoolers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 165, 66-84.



Kim, S., Paulus, M., & Kalish, C. (2017). Young children’s reliance on information from

inaccurate informants. Cognitive Science, 41, 601-621.


Müller, B., Meinhardt, J., & Paulus, M. (2017). Embodied simulation of others being touched in

1-year-old infants. Developmental Neuropsychology, 42, 198-205.


Paulus, M. (2017). Die Psychologie der Wohltätigkeit. In M. Klöcker & U. Tworuschka (Hrsg.),

Handbuch der Religionen. Kirchen und andere Glaubensgemeinschaften in Deutschland und im deutschsprachigen Raum (53. EL, XIV - 4.1.). Mediengruppe


Paulus, M. (2017). How to dax? Preschool children’s prosocial behavior, but not their social

norm enforcement relates to their peer status. Frontiers in Psychology 8: 1779.


Paulus, M., & Leitherer, M. (2017). Preschoolers’ social experiences and empathy-based

responding relate to their fair resource allocation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 161, 202-210.


Paulus, M., & Moore, C. (2017). Preschoolers’ generosity increases with understanding of the

affective consequences of sharing. Developmental Science, 20, e12417.


Paulus, M., & Rosal-Grifoll, B. (2017). Helping and sharing in preschool children with autism.

Experimental Brain Research, 235, 2081-2088.


Paulus, M., Jung, N., O’Driscoll, K., & Moore, C. (2017). Toddlers involve their caregiver to help

another person in need. Infancy, 22, 645-664.


Paulus, M., Schuwerk, T., Sodian, B., & Ganglmayer, K. (2017). Childrens’ and adults’ use of

verbal information to visually anticipate others’ actions: A study on explicit and implicit social-cognitive processing. Cognition, 160, 145-152.


Pfundmair, M., Zwarg, C., Paulus, M., & Rimpel, A. (2017). Oxytocin promotes attention to

social cues regardless of group membership. Hormones and Behavior, 90, 136-140.


Pletti, C., Scheel, A., & Paulus, M. (2017). Intrinsic altruism or social motivation–What does

pupil dilation tell us about children's helping behavior? Frontiers in psychology, 8, 2089. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02089.


Scharpf, F., Paulus, M., & Wörle, M. (2017). The impact of social relationships on Ugandan

children’s sharing decisions. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 436-448.


Tsalas, N., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2017). Correlates of metacognitive control in 10-year old

children and adults. Metacognition and Learning, 12, 297-314.



Aldaqre, I., Schuwerk, T., Daum, M., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2016). Sensitivity to

communicative and non-communicative gestures in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Experimental Brain Research, 234, 2515-2527.


Cuevas, K., & Paulus, M. (2016). The development of action mirroring. British Journal of

Developmental Psychology, 34, 1-5.


Kim, S., Paulus, M., Sodian, B., & Proust, J. (2016). Young children’s sensitivity to their own

ignorance in informing others. PLoS One 11(3): e0152595.


Kühn-Popp, N., Kristen, S., Paulus, M., Meinhardt, J., & Sodian, B. (2016). Left hemisphere EEG

coherence in infancy predicts infant declarative pointing and preschool epistemic language. Social Neuroscience, 11, 49-59.


Müller, B.C.N., Tsalas, N.R.H., van Schie, H. T., Meinhardt, J., Proust, J., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M.

(2016). Neural correlates of judgments of learning - An ERP study on metacognition. Brain Research, 1652, 170-177.


Paulus, M. (2016). Friendship trumps neediness: The impact of social relations and others’

wealth on preschool children’s sharing. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 146, 106-120.


Paulus, M. (2016). It’s payback time: Preschoolers selectively request resources from someone

they had benefitted. Developmental Psychology, 52, 1299-1306.


Paulus, M. (2016). The development of action planning in a joint action context. Developmental

Psychology, 52, 1052-1063.


Paulus, M., Becker, E., Scheub, A., & König, L. (2016). Preschool children’s attachment security

is associated with their sharing with others. Attachment & Human Development, 18, 1-15.


Paulus, M., Murillo, E., & Sodian, B. (2016). When the body reveals the mind: Children’s use of

others’ body orientation to understand their focus of attention. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 148, 101-118.


Schuwerk, T., & Paulus, M. (2016). Children, adolescents, and adults visually anticipate an

agent’s efficient action; but only after having observed it frequently. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, 800-816.


Schuwerk, T., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2016). Cognitive mechanisms underlying action

prediction in children and adults with autism spectrum condition. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 3623-3639.


Sodian, B., Licata, M., Kristen, S., Paulus, M., Killen, M., & Woodward, A. (2016). Understanding

of goals, beliefs, and desires predicts morally relevant Theory of Mind: A longitudinal investigation. Child Development, 87, 1221-1232.


Wörle, M., & Paulus, M. (2016). Helfen, teilen, trösten: Die Entwicklung prosozialen Verhaltens.

Kindergarten heute, 46, 16-22.



Aldaqre, I., Paulus, M., & Sodian, B. (2015). Referential gaze and word learning in adults with

autism. Autism, 9, 944-955. doi: 10.1177/1362361314556784


Licata, M., Paulus, M., Kühn-Popp, N., Meinhardt, J., & Sodian, B. (2015). Infant frontal

asymmetry predicts child emotional availability. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 39, 492-496. doi: 10.1177/0165025415576816


Müller, B.C.N., Kühn-Popp, N., Meinhardt, J., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2015). Long-term

stability in children’s frontal EEG alpha asymmetry between 14-months and 83-months. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 41, 110-114. doi:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.01.002


Paulus, M. (2015). Children’s inequity aversion depends on culture: A cross-cultural

comparison. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 132, 240-246. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2014.12.007


Paulus, M. (2015). Cognitive development: The neurocognitive basis of early prosociality.

Current Biology, 25, 47-48. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.11.023


Paulus, M. (2015). Psychological and neural correlates of the emergence of morality in

toddlers. Proceedings of the National Academcy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112, 12551-12552. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1516744112


Paulus, M., & Moore, C. (2015). Preschool children’s anticipation of recipients’ emotions affects their resource allocations. Social Development, 24, 852-867. doi: 10.1111/sode.12126


Paulus, M., & Sodian, B. (2015). Which way to take? Infants select an efficient path to their

goal. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 137, 111-124. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2015.03.014


Paulus, M., Kim, S., & Sodian, B. (2015). Clarifying the range of social-cognitive processes

subserving human teaching. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 38, e55. (commentary) doi: 10.1017/S0140525X14000569


Paulus, M., Licata, M., Kristen, S., Thoermer, C., Woodward, A., & Sodian, B. (2015). Early social

understanding and self-regulation predict preschoolers’ sharing with friends and disliked peers: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 39, 53-64. doi: 10.1177/0165025414537923


Tsalas, N., Paulus, M., & Sodian, B. (2015). Developmental changes and the effect of self-

generated feedback in metacognitively controlled spacing strategies in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 132, 140-154. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2015.01.008


Verschoor, S.A., Paulus, M., Spape, M., Biro, S., & Hommel, B. (2015). The developing cognitive

substrate of sequential action control in 9- to 12-month-olds: Evidence for concurrent activation models. Cognition, 138, 64-78. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2015.01.005



Kim, S., Sodian, B., & Paulus, M. (2014). “Does he need help or can he help himself?” Preschool

children’s expectations about others’ instrumental helping versus self-helping. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 430. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00430


Licata, M., Paulus, M., Thoermer, C., Kristen, S., Woodward, A., & Sodian, B. (2014). Mother-

infant-interaction quality and infants’ ability to encode actions as goal-directed. Social Development, 23, 340-356. doi: 10.1111/sode.12057


Paulus, M. (2014). Die frühkindliche Entwicklung sozial-kognitiver und metakognitiver

Fertigkeiten: Empirische Befunde, theoretische Kontroversen und Implikationen für die Ontogenese des Selbstbewusstseins. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie, 62, 879-912. doi: 10.1515/dzph-2014-0059


Paulus, M. (2014). How and why do infants imitate? An ideomotor approach to social and

imitative learning in infancy (and beyond). Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1139-1156. doi: 10.3758/s13423-014-0598-1


Paulus, M. (2014). The early origins of human charity: Preschoolers share more with poor than

wealthy individuals. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 344. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00344


Paulus, M. (2014). The emergence of prosocial behavior: Why do infants and toddlers help,

comfort, and share? Child Development Perspectives, 8, 77-81. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12066


Paulus, M. (2014). The ideomotor approach to imitative learning (IMAIL) in infancy: Challenges

and future perspectives. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11, 662-673. doi: 10.1080/17405629.2014.914432


Paulus, M., & Fikkert, P. (2014). Conflicting social cues: 14- and 24-month-old infants’ reliance

on gaze and pointing cues in word learning. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15, 43-59. doi: 10.1080/15248372.2012.698435


Paulus, M., & Moore, C. (2014). The development of sharing behavior and expectations about

other people’s sharing in preschool children. Developmental Psychology, 50, 914-921.


Paulus, M., Tsalas, N., Proust, J., & Sodian, B. (2014). Metacognitive monitoring of oneself and

others: Developmental changes in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 122, 153-165. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2013.12.011


Uithol, S., & Paulus, M. (2014). What do infants understand of others’ action? A theoretical

account of early social cognition. Psychological Research, 78, 609-622. doi: 10.1007/s00426-013-0519-3



Moore, C., & Paulus, M. (2013). A second-person approach cannot explain intentionality in

social understanding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36, 430-431. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X12001987


Paulus, M., & Kiraly, I. (2013). Early rationality in action perception and production? – A

theoretical exposition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 407-414. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2013.01.001


Paulus, M., Gillis, S., Li, J., & Moore, C. (2013). Preschool children involve a third party in a

dyadic sharing situation based on fairness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2012.12.014


Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., & Bekkering, H. (2013). Examining functional mechanisms of imitative

learning in infancy: Does teleological reasoning affect infants’ imitation beyond motor resonance? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 487-498. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2012.10.009


Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., & Bekkering, H. (2013). Neurocognitive mechanisms subserving social

learning in infancy: Infants’ neural processing of the effects of others’ actions. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 774-779. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss065


Paulus, M., Kühn-Popp, N., Licata, M., Sodian, B., & Meinhardt, J. (2013). Neural correlates of

prosocial behavior in infancy: Different neurophysiological mechanisms support the emergence of helping and comforting. NeuroImage, 66, 522-530. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.10.041


Paulus, M., Proust, J., & Sodian, B. (2013). Examining implicit metacognition in 3.5-year-old

children: An eye-tracking and pupillometric study. Frontiers in Psychology, 4: 145. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00145



Bergmann, C., Paulus, M., & Fikkert, P. (2012). Preschoolers’ comprehension of pronouns and

reflexives: The impact of the task. Journal of Child Language, 39, 777-803. doi: 10.1017/S0305000911000298


Hauf, P., Paulus, M., & Baillargeon, R. (2012). Infants use compression information to infer

object weight: Examining cognition, exploration, and prospective action in a preferential-reaching task. Child Development, 83, 1978-1995. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01824.x


Paulus, M. (2012). Action mirroring and action understanding: An ideomotor and attentional

account. Psychological Research, 76, 760-767. doi:10.1007/s00426-011-0385-9


Paulus, M. (2012). Is it rational to assume that infants imitate rationally? A theoretical analysis

and critique. Human Development, 55, 107-121. (Target article with invited peer commentaries). doi: 10.1159/000339442


Paulus, M., & Hauf, P. (2012). Reaching preferences in 11-month-old infants: The case of

objects’ material and weight. International Journal of Developmental Science, 6, 87-96. doi: 10.3233/DEV-2011-11069


Paulus, M., & Moore, C. (2012). Producing and understanding prosocial actions in early

childhood. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 42, 275-309. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394388-0.00008


Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., van Elk, M., & Bekkering, H. (2012). How learning to shake a rattle

affects 8-month-old infants’ perception of the rattle’s sound: Electrophysiological evidence for action-effect binding in infancy. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2, 90-96. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2011.05.006


Paulus, M., van Elk, M., & Bekkering, H. (2012). Acquiring functional object knowledge through

motor imagery? Experimental Brain Research, 218, 181-188. doi: 10.1007/s00221-012-3061-4



Hauf, P., & Paulus, M. (2011). Experience matters: 11-month-old infants can learn to use

material information to predict the weight of novel objects. Infant Behavior and Development, 34, 467-471. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2011.05.002


Paulus, M. (2011). How infants relate looker and object: Evidence for a perceptual learning

account on gaze following in infancy. Developmental Science, 14, 1301-1310. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01076.x

Paulus, M. (2011). Imitation in infancy: Conceptual considerations. Theory & Psychology, 21,

849-856.doi: 10.1177/0959354310395990


Paulus, M., & Hauf, P. (2011). Infants’ use of material information to guide their actions with

differently weighted objects. Infant and Child Development, 20, 423-436. doi: 10.1002/icd.704


Paulus, M., & Moore, C. (2011). Whom to ask for help? Children’s developing understanding of

other people’s action capabilities. Experimental Brain Research, 211, 593-600. doi: 10.1007/s00221-011-2676-1


Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., & Bekkering, H. (2011). Can 14- to 20-month-old children learn that a

tool serves multiple purposes? A developmental study on children’s action goal prediction. Vision Research, 51, 955-960. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2010.12.012


Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., van Wijngaard, C., Vrins, S., van Rooij, I., & Bekkering, H. (2011). The

role of frequency information and teleological reasoning in infants' and adults' action prediction. Developmental Psychology, 47, 976-983. doi: 10.1037/a0023785


Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., Vissers, M., & Bekkering, H. (2011). Bridging the gap between the

other and me: The functional role of motor resonance and action effects in infants' imitation. Developmental Science, 14, 901-910. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01040.x


Paulus, M., Hunnius, S., Vissers, M., & Bekkering, H. (2011). Imitation in infancy: Rational or

motor resonance? Child Development, 82, 1047-1057. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01610.x


Paulus, M., van Dam, W., Hunnius, S., Lindemann, O., & Bekkering, H. (2011). Action-effect

binding by observational learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 1022-1028. doi: 10.3758/s13423-011-0136-3


van Elk, M., Paulus, M., Pfeiffer, C., van Schie, H.T., & Bekkering, H. (2011). Learning to use

novel objects: A training study on the acquisition of novel action representations. Consciousness and Cognition, 20, 1304-1314. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2011.03.014



Bergmann, C., Paulus, M., & Fikkert, P. (2010). A closer look at pronoun comprehension:

comparing different methods. In: J. Costa, A. Castro, M. Lobo & F. Pratas (eds), Language Acquisition and Development: Proceedings of GALA 2009 (p. 53-61). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.


Meyer, M., Bekkering, H., Paulus, M., & Hunnius, S. (2010). Joint action coordination in 2.5- and

3-year-old children. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 4, 220. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2010.00220


Paulus, M., & Rodarius, D. (2010). Leben in einer Schriftsprachkultur: Psychologische und soziologische Perspektiven. In: J. Bothe & Bundesverband Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung e. V. (Hrsg.), Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung, Band 4. Münster/New York/München/Berlin: Waxmann.



Paulus, M., Lindemann, O., & Bekkering, H. (2009). Motor simulation in verbal knowledge

acquisition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 2298-2305. doi: 10.1080/17470210903108405


Paulus, M., & Rodarius, D. (2009). Sprache als strukturelles Element. Über psychologische und

soziologische Mechanismen der In- und Exklusion durch Sprache sowie ihre Konsequenzen für die Alphabetisierungsarbeit. In: J. Bothe & Bundesverband Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung e. V. (Hrsg.), Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung in Deutschland. Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung, Band 3. Münster/New York/München/Berlin: Waxmann.




Key Experiments in the Developmental Psychology

With 14 illustrations and one table


1st Edition

Ernst Reinhardt Verlag München



This book brings together the most important studies in developmental psychology. Classic investigations such as the strange situation test are given just as much attention as current research. The experiments are not only described compactly and uniformly, there is also a critical classification.


In this way, students gain practical insights into ethical questions, possible replications and the current significance of the individual experiments for developmental psychology.